Glossary Of Industry Terms
back to LION bioscience home
SitemapPrintable version of this documentContact LIONZur deutschen Version dieses Dokuments LION bioscience AG
Press
Press Releases
Ad-Hoc Releases
Online Press Kit
Events
Photos & Logos
Glossary
PR Contact
 

© 2004 LION bioscience AG
Disclaimer
Imprint/Contact
Contact Webmaster
Glossary Of Industry Terms
 
 

ADME
Characterstics of a substance in terms of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion.

API (Application Programming Interface)
API is a documented and standardized programming interface.

Array
A set of samples, numbers or symbols, e.g. experimental data, usually arranged in a particular order.

Assay
An experimental test system for the identification of a substance acting on the biological activity of proteins.

Bioinformatics
Science of developing computer software and algorithms to record and analyze biology related data e.g. gene, protein, metabolic pathways, and active drug ingredients data.

Biological pathways
Carefully regulated, complex networks of interactions by which the proteins expressed by genes carry out the biological function of cells. Biological pathways are generally classified as metabolic pathways, which are responsible for cellular metabolism and signal transduction pathways, which use secreted proteins, cell-surface receptor proteins and intracellular proteins to allow cells to communicate, coordinate and regulate their activities. The activities of biological pathways have many levels of control and redundancy and thus can be affected by many genes within a pathway. In addition to the effects of inherited genetic differences within the genome, a biological pathway is also affected by the expression levels of its key genes and proteins.

Cheminformatics
Science of developing computer software and algorithms to record and analyze data relating to chemical compounds and their properties.

Clinical trials
Last phases in the development process for new drugs in order to determine the effect on patients in real life studies.

Compound
Chemical substance that is analyzed for its potential to become a drug.

Compound library
Collection of different chemical molecules used to identify new drug candidates. In average these libraries consist of more than 500.000 compounds.

Diagnostic marker
A biochemical or genetic characteristics associated with health, disease or susceptibility to disease that can be used for the respective identification.

DNA (Desoxyribonucleic Acid)
A long double stranded nucleotide chain. It contains all genetic information necessary for all metabolic, growth and development processes of most organisms.

DNA sequence
Term denoting the order of the individual components (nucleotides) on a DNA segment.

Enzyme
Protein accelerating defined biochemical processes in cells.

Expression analysis
It allows the analysis of the activity of genes, often the cause or consequence of an illness, a reaction to treatment with a drug or an answer to changing environmental conditions.

Expressed Sequence Tags (EST)
Cloned gene fragments that result from an active gene during a certain stage of a cell or organ

Flatfile
File in a data system containing text-based records with no structured relationships.

Gene
The smallest functional genetic unit. DNA segment that contains information for the synthesis of one or more proteins. Genes constitute a basic unit of hereditary information.

Gene-function analysis
Investigation of the physiological functions of gene products, e.g. proteins. It correlates their functionsto health and disease.

Gene expression
Transcription of the information embodied in the DNA into mRNA (messenger RNA), which is then translated into proteins.

Genome
Totality of all genes and thus the entire hereditary information of an organism.

Genome research
The comprehensive investigation of all genes of an organism (its genome), their activity and function in biological processes.

Genotype
The individual DNA sequence of a cell or an organism.

High-throughput screening (HTS)
Technique to analyze a large number of compounds in biological assays in parallel in order to identify molecules with specific biological effects from large compound libraries.

Integration platform
Software system that connects different data sources and analyzing applications with one consistent infrastructure under one graphical user interface.

In silico
Method by which certain processes or complete scientific experiments are simulated on a computer.

In vitro
Method by which certain processes or complete scientific experiments are carried out in test tubes or Petri dishes.

In vivo
Experiments on a living, multi-cell organism, such as an animal or plant.

Lead (compound)
Chemical substance that is likely to be suitable as an active ingredient in a drug and is selected due to its properties for further research and development.

Life sciences
Defined as sciences concerned with all forms of life, the Life Sciences comprise a wide variety of disciplines without fixed boundaries. Life Sciences include aspects of experimental sciences, biology, chemistry and physics, including the integrated methods of mathematics and informatics, as well as clinical medicine.

Life Science Informatics (LSI™)
Computer software for the recording, analysis, and management of data and information from the life sciences, namely biology, chemistry, medicine, and contiguous disciplines.

Meta database
Virtual database that compiles information from different connected databases and allows access to all of them without transferring their content into a real database.

Metabolite
An intermediate product of metabolism, i. e. a term for compounds/substances (also drugs) produced by metabolism.

Micro-Array
A set of samples, numbers or symbols, e.g. experimental data, usually arranged in a particular order.

Mutation
A change in the DNA sequence that can be with or without effect as well as harmful but also beneficial. Mutations can be inherited.

Nuclear receptors
A familiy of proteins,  important as regulators located in the nucleus of a cell involved in a variety of physiological functions and therefore connected with diseases such as cancer, diabetes or hormone resistance.

Nucleotides
The components of DNA, consisting of phosphate, a sugar derivative and one of the following bases: adenine, cytosine, guanine, or thymine. They are represented by their initial letters in a nucleotide sequence.

Pharmacogenomics
Branch of pharmacology that deals with the understanding of the mode of action of drugs in relation to the individual DNA-sequences and corresponding protein properties.

Phenotype
The external individual characteristics of a cell or an organism.

Preclinics
Generic term for all in vitro and in vivo test systems used to determine the effect of drugs before clinical tests begin. The preclinical phase is mainly concerned with identifying possible new drugs and discovering effect mechanisms.

Protein
Macromolecules made up of amino acids. They are the chemical building blocks from which cells, organs and tissues like muscles are made. They also serve as hormones, enzymes and antibodies. Proteins are involved in the most important cell metabolism processes.

Proteome
Totality of all proteins of an organism. Derived from ”all the PROTEins that are encoded by the genOME“

Proteomics
Term used for all proteins present (expressed) in a cell or tissue at a specific time under certain pre-defined conditions. While the genome is virtually static, the proteome can continually change its state.

Receptor
Receptors are proteins that are involved in the transmission of signals to a cell. They can bind specific substances like hormones followed by a specific reaction. Example: steroid-hormone receptors.

R&D
Research and development

Relational database
Database system which stores information in table form.

RNA, Ribonucleic acid
A nucleic acid which translates information stored in the DNA into the amino acid sequence of proteins.

Search Guides
User interface enabling easy searching (query) within one or more databases.

Screening
Searching and analyzing biological effects of compounds in order to identify new drug candidates

Sequencing
A method of determining the exact sequential order of all bases in a DNA molecule. It is used to determine  the nucleotide sequence and thus to directly read genetic information.

Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
Individual pairs of nucleotides or bases that are different in two individuals of a given species are called SNPs. They can result in a genetically based disease or a changed susceptibility to drugs and  can be used to identify genetically based diseases.

Summary Sheets
LION term for the presentation of information from various data sources in an interactive and graphically supported format.

Target
Molecules that play a role in the development of illnesses, e.g. enzymes. Most active ingredients of drugs bind with such targets influencing their biological function.

Toxicology
The investigation of toxic characteristics of potential drug candidates.

Validation
Proving that a protein or a gene is associated with the development of a disease.